In 169 BCE, Antiochus Epiphanes went to Jerusalem in 169 BCE, where he plundered the Temple and took all the furniture and treasures away to Antioch. He then ordered the walls of Jerusalem to be strengthened and a fortress to be built south of the Temple Mount. Archaeology has shown that massive earth ramparts were built outside the city walls, both on the west and east of the city. These ramparts were relatively soft, making it very difficult for enemies to climb up. A year later, a new fortress – the Seleucid Akra – was built south of the Temple Mount.