The Jerusalem shown in our annotated reconstruction drawing shows the culmination of King Herod the Great’s extravagant plan for the city. From this view, his grand design for the city can clearly be seen. Viewed from the south, we see the Pool of Siloam in lower foreground.
To the left, we see the western edge of the Upper City. This was the exclusive residential quarter, which enjoyed purer air than did the Lower City, and in which Herod’s own palace was located, sheltered by the three great towers of Mariamme, Phasael and Hippicus. From this spot, the old wall which he had strengthened with many towers, ran along the upper crest of the Hinnom Valley across the Tyropoeon which bisected the city, to enclose the ancient City of David with its densely packed houses.
The Temple Mount, at the centre right of the reconstruction drawing, was the city’s crowning glory. On the northwest corner of the Temple platform stood the Antonia Fortress, which housed the garrison of Roman soldiers keeping watch over Herod’s Jewish subjects. In the centre of the drawing, we see the former Hasmonean Palace with a street behind it linking it to the Temple Mount via the Royal Bridge. Next to the Antonia Fortress, the area of the Upper Markets was safely enclosed within the Second Wall built by Herod.